The role and significance of aquatic-terrestrial Cyanoprokaryota in the ecosystem of the Kuyalnik Estuary (the northwestern coast of the Black Sea) are discussed. The ecosystem is characterized by sharp fluctuations in hydrological regime, water area, and salinity of water and soil; also, it undergoes strong antropogenous pollution. In this area 94 taxa of Cyanoprokaryota were revealed during long-term observations. Most of the taxa (53.2%) belong to subclass Oscillatoriophycideae. Representatives of Synechococcophycideae (27.7%) and Nostococcophycideae (19.1%) are less diverse. Peculiarities of spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria in the estuary are analyzed. The most diverse and abundant are cyanoprocaryotes in benthic communities. Macroscopic cyanobacterial films may be involved in the process of formation of peloids. It was confirmed that cyanoprocaryotes play a leading role in the aquatic and terrestrial biotopes of the estuary basin due to their environmental sustainability and lability to the fluctuations of salinity, pH, and temperature. Peculiarities of their distribution in the area and the main environmental factors affecting the formation of their species composition are discussed.
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