The paper presents the results of long-term (2009–2015) original studies of the species composition of algae in the hyperhaline Kuyalnik Estuary and the temporary reservoirs of its coast, differing in morphometric and physicochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, and acidity). In reservoirs with water salinity ranging from 5.4–128.2 ‰, 54 species of algae from 4 divisions were recorded: Bacillariophyta – 32 species (59.3%), Cyanoprokaryota – 14 (25.9%), Chlorophyta – 6 (11.1%), and Euglenophyta – 2 (3.7%). In the estuary, where water salinity during the period of observations varied from 198 ‰ to 399 ‰, only 8 species were revealed. Among them, 6 species belong to Bacillariophyta and two species were Chlorophyta. At the salinity of 300–320‰ only the green alga Dunaliella salina Teodor. occurred; however, when water salinity increased up to 357 ‰ and higher, living cells of D. salina were not observed. In the period of the highest water (2004–spring of 2007), when water salinity varied from 49.9 to 174 ‰ sometimes decreasing up to 13–30 ‰, 24 species of algae were recorded both in the estuary and temporal water bodies on its coast. They included representatives of Cyanoprokaryota (9), Bacillariophyta (13), and Chlorophyta (2). Rhoicosphenia abbreviata (C. Agardh.) Lange-Bert., Tabularia tabulata (C. Agardh) Snoeijs, Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenb.) Reimer et F.W. Lewis, Surirella striatula Turpin, Arthrospira meneghiniana (Zanardini ex Gomont) W.B. Crow, and D. salina are species with the highest physiological adaptability and rapid response to changes in the physiochemical conditions of the environment, but only Dunaliella salina was able to live in the water with a salinity range of 5–320 ‰. Some ecological features of the species found are discussed. The taxonomic structure of algae of temporal reservoirs and the Kuyalnik Estuary has some similarities. This provides evidence for the strong adaptability of some species found, and the possibility of biotechnological use of algae isolated from harsh conditions.
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