This paper presents results on species diversity, taxonomic structure and dominants of algal communities of soils in oak groves of the Steppe zone of Ukraine. A total of 128 species of soil algae were revealed. Chlorophyta lead in species number; Xanthophyta, Cyanoprokaryota or Bacillariophyta rank second depending on the type of the grove. Soil algocenosis of the linden-ash oak grove was the most diverse (59 species). Dominating complexes of soil algae of studied oak groves vary in species number and taxonomic structure. Peculiarities of species and taxonomic composition of soil algae communities of the oak groves of different types are due not only to their geographical remoteness, but also to the ecological conditions of the microenvironment. Water regime and the degree of erosion on the slopes of ravines play key roles in the formation of algal communities. A new habitat of Protosiphon botryoides (Kütz.) Klebs in Ukraine was found. It was isolated from the soil of the floodplain birch-ash grove of the Samara forest (Dnepropetrovsk Region). The strain P. botryoides MZ-Ch14 was studied in terms of its morphology and phylogeny. An isolated strain can be used in the process of selection of the most promising sources of secondary carotenoids.
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