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Algologia 2018, 28(4): 428–448
https://doi.org/10.15407/alg28.04.428
Flora and Geography

Revision of the dinoflagellate species composition of the Black Sea

Krakhmalnyi A.F.1, Okolodkov Y.B.2*, Bryantseva Yu.V.3, Sergeeva A.V.4, Velikova V.N.5, Derezyuk N.V.6, Terenko G.V.7, Kostenko A.G.1, Krakhmalnyi M.A.8
Abstract

Data on the diversity of dinoflagellates of the Black Sea (BS) obtained from all BS countries (Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine) from 1886 to 2018 are critically ummarized. The revised list of the BS Dinoflagellata includes 420 species (447 including infraspecific taxa) from 92 genera that belong to 47 families, 16 orders and 4 classes. This significantly exceeds the number of dinoflagellate taxa previously cited for the BS. This is mainly due to an increased interest in phytoplankton in recent decades and to international cooperation. Additionally, climate change and intensification of international shipping have contributed to the appearance of invasive species of dinoflagellates in various areas of the sea. The list also includes freshwater species recorded from the less saline areas of the sea. Recent progress in taxonomy has expanded our knowledge about diversity of the BS dinoflagellates; however, the leading orders remained unchanged. Peridiniales (124 species/129 including infraspecific taxa), Gymnodiniales (96/96), Gonyaulacales (73/91), Dinophysiales (40/41), Prorocentrales (23/25) and Amphidiniales (21/22) include 85% of the species found. Genera with the highest species richness are Protoperidinium (59/62), Gymnodinium (48/48), Ceratium (34/52), Dinophysis (33/34), Prorocentrum (22/24), Amphidinium (21/22), Gyrodinium (20/20), Gonyaulax (19/19) and Oxytoxum (14/14). Fifty-two genera are represented in the BS by one species each, 201 species and infraspecific taxa were first cited after 1990. A list of the BS dinoflagellates was compiled with currently accepted taxonomic names and their synonyms cited for the BS. References contain 116 literary and unpublished original data sources. Further efforts to study the species diversity of the BS should be aimed at more accurate identification of species using modern methodologies. Continuing to update the BS phytoplankton database, where complete information on each species is freely available, will also contribute to the progress in studying the biodiversity of the BS.

Keywords: Dinoflagellata, phytoplankton, species composition, taxonomic structure, Black Sea

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