The yellow green algae belonging to the genera Botrydium and Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) were studied in the south of the Baikal region from 2011 to 2017. As a result, 375 populations of 15 siphonous xanthophytes from Botrydium (1 species) and Vaucheria (13 species and 1 variety) have been revealed in the 218 localities of the studied region. Botrydium granulatum (Linnaeus) Greville was recorded only once while 374 populations represented the taxa from genus Vaucheria. Most of them (365) were found in situ fertile, with reproductive organs. It allowed identifying them without cultivation. Most of the Vaucheria records (about 80%) are V. bursata (O. Müller) C. Agardh (125 localities), V. racemosa (Vaucher) de Candolle (77), V. canalicularis Linnaeus (53) and V. frigida (Roth) C. Agardh (32). The rest representatives of Vaucheria met much less frequently. V. fontinalis, V. aff. aversa, V. frigida var. major, V. alaskana, V. cruciata were found in 9–15 localities. Vaucheria birostris, V. schleicheri, V. prona, V. taylorii, and V. uncinata were recorded in five or less localities. In the south of Baikal region, siphonous xanthophytes occur mainly in aquatic and semiaquatic biotopes; in terrestrial habitats, they were rarely found possibly due to the moderately humid and arid continental climate in the region.
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