The paper presents the results of a study of microphytobenthos of the Egyptian Red Sea coastal area near Sharm-el-Sheikh. Samples were collected in December 2014 and January 2015 from various substrates at a depth of 0.1–1.0 m at low tide. Substrates include thalli of algae-macrophytes (Gelidium crinale (Hare ex Turner) Gaillon, Phyllophora crispa (Hudson) P.S.Dixon, Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg ) Kützing), stones, corals, sandy and silt soils, submerged metal rails, and plastic bottles. A total of 96 species of microscopic algae were identified; they belong to 48 genera, 30 families, 20 orders, 4 classes, and 3 divisions. Diatoms (83 species) led in species number followed by cyanobacteria (11). The most diverse genera in terms of species composition are Nitzschia Hassall (8 species), Amphora Ehrenberg ex Kützing and Cocconeis Ehrenberg (7 species each), Mastogloia Thwaites ex W.Smith (6), Licmophora C.Agardh (5), Halamphora Levkov (4), and Diploneis Ehrenberg ex Cleve (4). The algal flora of the studied area may be characterized as marine, alkaliphilic, and cosmopolitan with boreal, boreal-tropical, and tropical elements. The distribution of revealed algae by substrates was as follows: macrophytes (60 species), silts (36), sands (30), stones (10), metal rails (5), coral (16), and plastic bottles (1 species). Among species found, 22 taxa are first cited for the Red Sea: Anagnostidinema amphibium (C.Agardh ex Gomont) Strunecky et al., Calothrix nidulans Setchell et N.L.Gardner, Cymatosira belgica Grunow, Fragilaria gedanensis Witkowski, Licmophora communis (Heiberg) Grunow, L. paradoxa (Lyngbye) C.Agardh, Hyalosira delicatula var. gibbosa (Østrup) Witkowski, Cocconeis schmidtii Cleve-Euler, Mastogloia pseudolatecostata T.A.Yohn et R.A.Gibson, Diploneis vacillans (A.W.F.Schmidt) Cleve, Navicula arenaria Donkin, N. gregaria Donkin, Gyrosigma fasciola (Ehrenberg) J.W.Griffith et Henfrey, Pleurosigma rigidum W.Smith, Stauroneis simulans (Donkin) R.Ross, Amphora laevis Gregory, Halamphora acutiuscula (Kützing) Levkov, H. cuneata (Cleve) Levkov, Nitzschia ocellata Cleve, N. tubicola Grunow, Entomoneis alata (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg, and E. punctulata (Grunow) K.Osada et H.Kobayasi.
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