ISSN (print) 0868-8540, (online) 2413-5984
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Algologia 2019, 29(4): 391–403
Physiology, Biochemistry, Biophysics

Content of lipids, fatty acids, and fucoxanthin in branches of different ages of Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C.Agardh (Phaeophyceae)

Ryabushko V.I.1, Kamnev A.N.2,3, Gureeva Е.V.1, Prazukin А.V.1, Nechoroshev М.V.1

Data on the concentration of total lipids, fatty acids, and fucoxanthin, depending on the age of the branches of brown alga Cystoseira barbata, collected on the Crimean coast of the Black Sea, are presented. The fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography, and fucoxanthin was measured by means of thin layer chromatography. In the summer, fairly low concentrations of lipids and fucoxanthin were noted in the branches of Cystoseira thalli. The maximum concentration of lipids (7.8 ± 0.3 mg·g-1dry) and fucoxanthin (0.59 ± 0.04 mg·g-1dry) was found in branches of 3–5 months old. A high content of fatty acids was also noted: myristic C14:0, palmitic C16:0, stearic C18:0, oleic C18:1 (n-9), linoleic C18:2 (n-6), stearidonic C18:4 (n-3), arachidonic C20:4 (n-6), and eicosapentaenoic C20:5 (n-3). In the lipid fraction of C. barbata branches, the maximum content of palmitic acid (C16:0) was found to be 21.6%. Myristic acid (C14:0) was present in small amounts, and pentadecanoic (C15:0) and heptadecanoic (C17:0) acids were present in trace amounts. The concentration of C14:0, C15:0, and C17:0 in the thallus of C. barbata was 2-3 times higher than in other species of brown algae. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was 31%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 36–42%. The concentration of arachidonic acid varied within 7–14% depending on the age of the branches, and its maximum amount was found in branches older than 3 months. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid averaged 7%; its maximum content of 9% was in branches 5–6 months old. Docosahexaenoic acid was found in small quantities (0.37 ± 0.2%). Analysis of the total amount of PUFAs and SFAs, (n-3) and (n-6) acids showed that the maximum content of all groups of acids is contained in branches older than 5 months. The proportion of the most valuable n-3 fatty acids averages 15.3% of the total amount of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME). Branches of C. barbata older than 3 months have an optimal (1.0) n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio for human health. The high concentrations of C14:0, C16:0, C18:4 (n-3), C20:4 (n-3), C18:2 (n-6), and C20:4 (n-3) in Cystoseira correlate with the maximum fucoxanthin content. The data obtained allow optimizing the process of collecting raw materials in order to maximize the yield of target biologically active substances.

Keywords: Cystoseira barbata, Phaeophyceae, fatty acids, lipids, fucoxanthin, Black Sea

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