Taxonomic history of the Caspian endemic Oscillatoria tanganyikae var. caspica Usachev is discussed. The taxon was described from the phytoplankton of the North Caspian in 1938 as a variety of the rare tropical species O. tanganyikae G.S.West and has since been repeatedly cited for this part of the sea. However, in all identification manuals and the floras of Cyanophyta, O. tanganyikae are given without intraspecific taxa. As a result of a taxonomic revision of the order Oscillatoriales, the species was recombined as Phormidium tanganyikae (G.S.West) Anagnostidis et Komárek 1988 and assigned to group II of this genus. Later, a complex study of a number of strains, morphologically corresponding to the species of group II, resulted in the description of the genus Kamptonema Strunecký, Komárek et J.Smarda, to which, according to its authors, P. tanganyikae may belong. Based on the analysis of modern approaches to the taxonomy of cyanobacteria, as well as morphological characters, ecology, and distribution O. tanganyikae var. caspica, we propose to include it in the genus Kamptonema as a new nomenclature combination: Kamptonema caspicum (Usachev) O.Vinogradova et M.Nuriyeva comb. nov.
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