ISSN (print) 0868-8540, (online) 2413-5984
logoAlgologia
  • 2 of 7
Up
Algologia 2019, 29(4): 391–403
https://doi.org/10.15407/alg29.04.391
Physiology, Biochemistry, Biophysics

Content of lipids, fatty acids, and fucoxanthin in branches of different ages of Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C.Agardh (Phaeophyceae)

Ryabushko V.I.1, Kamnev A.N.2,3, Gureeva Е.V.1, Prazukin А.V.1, Nechoroshev М.V.1
Abstract

Data on the concentration of total lipids, fatty acids, and fucoxanthin, depending on the age of the branches of brown alga Cystoseira barbata, collected on the Crimean coast of the Black Sea, are presented. The fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography, and fucoxanthin was measured by means of thin layer chromatography. In the summer, fairly low concentrations of lipids and fucoxanthin were noted in the branches of Cystoseira thalli. The maximum concentration of lipids (7.8 ± 0.3 mg·g-1dry) and fucoxanthin (0.59 ± 0.04 mg·g-1dry) was found in branches of 3–5 months old. A high content of fatty acids was also noted: myristic C14:0, palmitic C16:0, stearic C18:0, oleic C18:1 (n-9), linoleic C18:2 (n-6), stearidonic C18:4 (n-3), arachidonic C20:4 (n-6), and eicosapentaenoic C20:5 (n-3). In the lipid fraction of C. barbata branches, the maximum content of palmitic acid (C16:0) was found to be 21.6%. Myristic acid (C14:0) was present in small amounts, and pentadecanoic (C15:0) and heptadecanoic (C17:0) acids were present in trace amounts. The concentration of C14:0, C15:0, and C17:0 in the thallus of C. barbata was 2-3 times higher than in other species of brown algae. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was 31%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 36–42%. The concentration of arachidonic acid varied within 7–14% depending on the age of the branches, and its maximum amount was found in branches older than 3 months. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid averaged 7%; its maximum content of 9% was in branches 5–6 months old. Docosahexaenoic acid was found in small quantities (0.37 ± 0.2%). Analysis of the total amount of PUFAs and SFAs, (n-3) and (n-6) acids showed that the maximum content of all groups of acids is contained in branches older than 5 months. The proportion of the most valuable n-3 fatty acids averages 15.3% of the total amount of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME). Branches of C. barbata older than 3 months have an optimal (1.0) n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio for human health. The high concentrations of C14:0, C16:0, C18:4 (n-3), C20:4 (n-3), C18:2 (n-6), and C20:4 (n-3) in Cystoseira correlate with the maximum fucoxanthin content. The data obtained allow optimizing the process of collecting raw materials in order to maximize the yield of target biologically active substances.

Keywords: Cystoseira barbata, Phaeophyceae, fatty acids, lipids, fucoxanthin, Black Sea

Full text: PDF (Rus) 291K

References
  1. Airanthi M.K., Sasaki N., Iwasaki S., Baba N., Abe M., Hosokawa M., Miyashita K. 2011. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(8): 4156–4163. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf104643b https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21405010
  2. Calder P.C. 2012. Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids. J. Nutr. 142: 592S–599S. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.111.155259 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279140
  3. Dawczynski C., Schubert R., Jahreis G. 2007. Amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary fibre in edible seaweed products. Food Chem. 103(3): 891–899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.041
  4. Dembitsky V.M., Maoka T. 2007. Allenic and cumulenic lipids. Prog. Lipid Res. 46: 328–375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2007.07.001 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17765976
  5. Dembitsky V.M., Rozentsvet O.A., Pechenkina E.E. 1990. Glycolipids, phospholipids and fatty acids of brown algal species. Phytochemistry. 29: 3417–3423. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(90)85249-F
  6. Fariman G.A., Shastan S.J., Zahedi M.M. 2015. Seasonal variation of total lipid, fatty acids, fucoxanthin content, and antioxidant properties of two tropical brown algae (Nizamuddinia zanardinii and Cystoseira indica) from Iran. J. Appl. Phycol. 28(2): 1323–1331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-015-0645-y
  7. Gerasimenko N.I., Busarova N.G., Moiseenko O.P. 2010. Seasonal changes in the content of lipids, fatty acids, and pigments in brown alga Costaria costata. Rus. J. Plant Physiol. 57(2): 205–211. https://doi.org/10.1134/S102144371002007X
  8. Ivanova V., Stancheva M., Petrova D. 2013. Fatty acid composition of Black Sea Ulva rigida and Cystoseira crinita. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 19(S1): 42–47.
  9. Kamnev A.N. 1989. Structure and functions of brown algae. Moscow: Moscow Gos. Univ. 200 p. [Rus.]
  10. Keits M. 1975. Techniques of lipidology Isolation, analysis and identification of lipids. Translate from English. Moscow: Mir. 322 p. [Rus.]
  11. Khotimchenko S.V., Vaskovsky V.E., Titlyanova T.V. 2002. Fatty acids of marine algae from the Pacific coast of North California. Bot. Mar. 45: 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1515/BOT.2002.003
  12. Kim M.K., Dubacq J.P., Thomas J.C., Giraud G. 1996. Seasonal variations of triacylglycerols and fatty acids in Fucus serratus. Phytochemistry. 43: 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(96)00243-9
  13. Kumari P., Kumar M., Gupta V., Reddy C.R.K., Jha B. 2010. Tropical marine macroalgae as potential sources of nutritionally important PUFAs. Food Chem. 120(3): 749–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.006
  14. Nekhoroshev M.V., Ryabushko V.I., Gureeva E.V. 2018. Obtaining method of preventive product from the Black Sea algae genus Cystoseira (versions). Pat. RF N 2658705. Publ. 22.06.2018. [Rus.]
  15. Obluchinskaya E.D. 2005. Technologies of the medicinal and medical prophylactics substances from brown seaweeds. Apatity: Kola Sci. Centre RAS. 164 p. [Rus.]
  16. Panayotova V., Merzdhanova A., Dobreva D.A., Zlatanov M., Makedonski L. 2017. Lipids of Black Sea algae: unveiling their potential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. J. IMAB. 23(4): 1747–1751. https://doi.org/10.5272/jimab.2017234.1747
  17. Prazukin A.V. 1983. Phenomenological description of the Cystoseira barbata branches growth as the basis for the periodization of their ontogenesis. Eсol. Morya. (15): 49–58.
  18. Ratana-Arporn P., Chirapart A. 2006. Nutritional evaluation of tropical green seaweeds Caulerpa lentillifera and Ulva reticulate. Kasetsart J. Nat. Sci. 40: 75–83.
  19. Patarra R.F., Leite J., Pereira R., Baptista J., Neto A.I. 2013. Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes. Nat. Prod. Res. 27: 665–669. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.688048 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591127
  20. Ryabushko V.I., Prazukin A.V., Gureeva E.V., Bobko N.I., Kovrigina N.G., Nekhoro-shev M.V. 2017. Fucoxanthin and heavy metals in brown algae of genus Cystoseira C.Agardh from water areas with different anthropogenic influences (Black Sea). Mar. Biol. J. 2(2): 70–79. https://doi.org/10.21072/mbj.2017.02.2.07
  21. Ryabushko V., Prazukin A., Popova E., Nekhoroshev M. 2014. Fucoxanthin of the brown alga Cystoseira barbata (Stackh.) C. Agardh from the Black Sea. J. Black Sea/Mediter. Environ. 20(2): 108–113.
  22. Silva G., Pereira R.B., Valentao P., Andrade P.B, Sousa C. 2013. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae. Braz. J. Pharm. 23: 608–613. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000048
  23. Stefanov K., Konaklieva M., Brechany E.Y., Christie W.W. 1988. Fatty acid composition of some algae from the Black Sea. Phytochemistry. 27(11): 3495–3497. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(88)80755-6
  24. Susanto E., Fahmi A.S., Abe M., Hosokawa M., Miyashita K. 2016. Lipids, fatty acids, and fucoxanthin content from temperate and tropical brown seaweeds. Aquat. Proc. 7: 66–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2016.07.009
  25. Tallima H., El Ridi R. 2017. Arachidonic acid: Physiological roles and potential health benefits. A review. J. Adv. Res. 11: 33–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2017.11.004 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30034874 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052655
  26. Terasaki M., Hirose A., Narayan B., Baba Y., Kawagoe C., Yasui H., Miyashita K. 2009. Evaluation of recoverable functional lipid components of several brown seaweeds (Phaeophyta) from Japan with special reference to fucoxanthin and fucosterol contents. J. Phycol. 45(4): 974–980. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00706.x https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034228
  27. Tsukui T., Konno K., Hosokawa M., Maeda H., Sashima T., Miyashita K. 2007. Fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol enhance the amount of docosahexaenoic acid in the liver of KKAy obese/diabetic mice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 5025–5029. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070110q https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536824
  28. Vizetto-Duarte C., Pereira H., Bruno de Sousa C., Pilar Rauter A., Albericio F., Custódio L., Varela J. 2015. Fatty acid profile of different species of algae of the Cystoseira genus: a nutraceutical perspective. Nat. Prod. Res. 29(13): 1264–1270. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.992343 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554366
  29. Vozzhinskaya V.B., Kamnev A.N. 1994. Ecological and biological basis for cultivation and usage of sea bottom algae. Moscow: Nauka. 202 p. [Rus.]